bed-wetting n : enuresis during sleep; especially common in children (who usually outgrow it)
- Finnish: yökastelu
Bedwetting is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated. Doctors call this condition, "Nocturnal Enuresis." Primary Nocturnal Enuresis (PNE) is when a child has not yet stayed dry on a regular basis. Secondary Nocturnal Enuresis is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry.
Bedwetting is the most common pediatric-health issue. Studies show that parents become worried too quickly because they expect children to stay dry too early. Most girls can stay dry by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. By ten years old, 95% of children are dry at night. Studies place adult bedwetting rates at between 0.5% to 2.3%.
Developmental delay causes most bedwetting, frequently associated with a family history of the condition. Only a small percentage (5% to 10%) of bedwetting cases are caused by specific medical situations.
Treatment ranges from behavioral-based options such as bedwetting alarms, to medication such as hormone replacement. For most patients, the treatment is aimed at protecting or improving self-esteem. Treatment guidelines recommend that the physician counsel the parents, warning about psychological damage caused by pressure, shaming, or punishment for a condition children cannot control.
Normal processes of staying dryTwo physical functions prevent bedwetting. The first is a hormone that reduces urine production at night. The second is the ability to wake up when the bladder is full. Children usually achieve nighttime dryness by developing one or both of these abilities. There appear to be some hereditary factors in how and when these develop.
The first ability is a hormone cycle that reduces the body's urine production. At about sunset each day, the body releases a minute burst of antidiuretic hormone (also known as arginine vasopressin [AVP]). This hormone burst reduces the kidney's urine output well into the night so the bladder doesn't get full until morning. This hormone cycle is not present at birth. Many children develop it between the ages of two and six years old, others between six and the end of puberty, and some not at all.
The second ability that helps people stay dry is waking when the bladder is full. This ability develops in the same age range as the vasopressin hormone, but is separate from that hormone cycle.
Most children develop the ability to stay dry as they grow older. The typical development process begins with one- and two-year-old children developing larger bladders and beginning to sense bladder fullness. Two- and three-year-old children begin to stay dry during the day. Four- and five-year-olds develop an adult pattern of urinary control and begin to stay dry at night.
Frequency of bedwetting (epidemiology)Most girls can stay dry at night by age six and most boys stay dry by age seven. Males are more likely to wet the bed than females. Males make up 60% of bedwetters overall and make up more than 90% of those who wet nightly.
Doctors frequently consider bedwetting as a self-limiting problem, since most children will grow out of it. Children 5 to 9 years old have a spontaneous cure rate of 14% per year. Adolescents 10 to 18 years old have a spontaneous cure rate of 16% per year.
Approximate bedwetting rates are :
- Age 5 : 20%
- Age 6 : 10 to 15%
- Age 7 : 7%
- Age 10 : 5%
- Age 15 : 1-2%
- Age 18-64 : 0.5%-1%
As can be seen from the numbers above, 5% to 10% of bedwetting children will not outgrow the problem, leaving 0.5% to 1% of adults still dealing with bedwetting. Individuals who are still enuretic at age 18 are likely to deal with bedwetting throughout their lives. Adult rates of bedwetting show little change due to spontaneous cure.
Studies of bedwetting in adults have found varying rates. The most-quoted study in this area was done in the Netherlands. It found a 0.5% rate for 18-64 year olds. A Hong Kong study, however, found a much higher rate. The Hong Kong researchers found a bedwetting rate of 2.3% in 16 to 40 year olds.
Medical definitions: primary vs. secondary enuresisThe medical name for bedwetting is nocturnal enuresis. The condition is divided into two types: primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and secondary nocturnal enuresis.
Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE)Primary nocturnal enuresis occurs when a child is beyond the age at which bladder control would normally be anticipated and either continues to average at least two wet nights a week with no long periods of dryness or would not sleep dry without being taken to the toilet by another person.
Some medical definitions list primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) as a clinical condition at between 4-5 years old. This type of classification is frequently used by insurance companies. It defines PNE as, “persistent bedwetting in the absence of any urologic, medical or neurological anomaly in a child beyond the age when over 75% of children are normally dry.”
Other definitions for PNE cast themselves as more “practical” guidance, saying that bedwetting can be considered a "clinical problem" if the child is unable to keep the bed dry by age seven. D'Alessandro refines this to bedwetting more than 2x/month after six years old for females and seven years old for males.
Secondary nocturnal enuresisSecondary enuresis occurs after a patient goes through an extended period of dryness at night (approx. 6 months or more) and then reverts to night-time wetting. Secondary enuresis can be caused by emotional stress or a medical condition, such as a bladder infection.
U.S. psychological definitionPsychologists may use a definition from the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV, defining nocturnal enuresis as repeated urination into bed or clothes, occurring twice per week for at least 3 consecutive months in a child of at least 5 years of age and not due to either a drug side effect or a medical condition. Even if the case does not meet this criteria, the DSM-IV definition allows psychologists to diagnose nocturnal enuresis if the wetting causes the patient clinically significant distress.
Causes of and increased risks for bedwettingThe following list summarizes bedwetting's known causes and risk factors. Enuretic patients frequently have more than one cause or risk factor from the items listed below.
Most-common causesMost cases of bedwetting are PNE-type, which has two related most-common causes:
- Neurological-developmental delay This is the most common cause of bedwetting. Most bedwetting children are simply delayed in developing the ability to stay dry and have no other developmental issues.
- Genetics Bedwetting has a strong genetic component. Children whose parents were not enuretic have only a 15% incidence of bedwetting. When one or both parents were bedwetters, the rates jump to 44% and 77% respectively. Genetic research shows that bedwetting is associated with the genes on chromosomes 13q and 12q (possibly 5 and 22 also).
There is no test to prove that bedwetting is only a developmental delay and genetic testing offers little or no benefit to a bedwetting patient.
Other proven causesDoctors examining a bedwetting patient will search for the following, less frequent, causes of nocturnal enuresis.
- Insufficient anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) production A portion of bedwetting children do not produce enough of the anti-diuretic hormone. As explained above, the body normally increases ADH hormone levels at night, signalling the kidneys to produce less urine. The diurnal change may not be seen until about age 10.
- Psychological Psychological issues (e.g., death in the family, sexual abuse, extreme bullying) are established as a cause of secondary nocturnal enuresis (a return to bedwetting), but are very rarely a cause of PNE-type bedwetting. When Enuresis is caused by a psychological disorder, the bedwetting is considered a symptom of the disorder. Enuresis does have a psychological diagnosis code (see previous section), but it is not considered a psychological condition itself. (See section on psychological/social impact, below)
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- More severe neurological-developmental issues Patients with mental handicaps, such as Down syndrome, have a higher rate of bedwetting problems. One study of seven year olds showed that, "handicapped and mentally retarded children," had a bedwetting rate almost three times higher than non-handicapped children (26.6% vs. 9.5%, respectively).
Unconfirmed, controversial, or mixed causes
- Heavy sleeping Many parents report that their bedwetting children are heavy sleepers. Research in this area has produced some contradictory results. Studies show that children wet the bed during all phases of sleep, not just the deepest (stage four). A recent study, however, showed that enuretic children were harder to wake. Some literature does show a possible connection between sleep disorders and ADH production. Insufficient ADH might make it more difficult to transition from light sleep to being awake.
- Stress Stress is not a cause of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), but is well established as a cause of returning to bedwetting (secondary nocturnal enuresis). Researchers studying children who have yet to stay dry find, "no relationship to social background, life stresses, family constellation, or number of residencies.” . On the other hand, stress is a cause of people who return to wetting the bed. Researchers find that moving to a new town, parent conflict or divorce, arrival of a new baby, or loss of a loved one or pet can cause insecurity, contributing to returning bedwetting.
- Improper toilet training This is another disputed cause of bedwetting. This theory was more widely supported in the last century and is still cited by some authors today. Some say bedwetting can be caused by improper toilet training, either by starting the training when the child is too young or by being too forceful. Recent research has shown more mixed results and a connection to toilet training has not been proved or disproved.
- Dandelions Anecdotal reports and folk wisdom says children who handle dandelions can end up wetting the bed. Dandelions are reputed to be a potent diuretic. English folk names for the plant are "peebeds" and "pissabeds". In French dandelions are called pissenlit, which means "urinate in bed"; likewise "piscialletto", an Italian folkname, and "meacamas" in Spanish.
Psychological-social impactA review of medical literature shows doctors consistently stressing that a bedwetting child is not at fault for the situation. Many medical studies state that the psychological impacts of bedwetting are more important than the physical considerations. “It is often the child's and family member's reaction to bedwetting that determines whether it is a problem or not.”
Impact on self-esteemWhether bedwetting causes low self-esteem remains a subject of debate, but several studies have found that self-esteem improved with management of the condition. Children questioned in one study ranked bedwetting as the third most stressful life event, after parental divorce and parental fighting. Adolescents in the same study ranked bedwetting as tied for second with parental fighting.
Bedwetting children face problems ranging from being teased by siblings, being punished by parents, and being afraid that friends will find out.
Psychologists report that the amount of psychological harm depends on whether the bedwetting harms self-esteem or development of social skills. Key factors are:
- How much the bedwetting limits social activities like sleep-overs and campouts
- The degree of the social ostracism by peers
- Anger, punishment, and rejection by caregivers
- The number of failed treatment attempts
- How long the child has been wetting
Behavioral impactStudies show that bedwetting children are more likely to have behavioral problems. For children who have developmental problems, the behavioral problems and the bedwetting are frequently part of/caused by the developmental issues. For bedwetting children without other developmental issues, these behavioral issues can result from self-esteem issues and stress caused by the wetting.
As mentioned previously, current studies show that it is very rare for a child to intentionally wet the bed as a method of acting out.
Historical psychological perspective on bedwettingPsychological theory through the 1960s placed much greater focus on the possibility that a bedwetting child might be acting out, purposefully striking back against parents by soiling linens and bedding. (More recent research and medical literature states that this is very rare.)
Punishment for bedwetting: effects and ratesMedical literature states and studies show that punishing or shaming a child for bedwetting will frequently make the situation worse. Doctors describe a downward cycle where a child punished for bedwetting feels shame and a loss of self-confidence. This can cause increased bedwetting incidents, leading to more punishment/shaming.
In the United States, about 25% of enuretic children are punished for wetting the bed. In Hong Kong, 57% of enuretic children are punished for wetting. Parents with only a grade-school level education punish bed-wetting children at twice the rate of high school- and college-educated parents.
Impact on familiesParents and family members are frequently stressed by a child’s bedwetting. Soiled linens and clothing cause additional laundry. Wetting episodes can cause lost sleep if the child wakes and/or cries, waking the parents. A European study estimated that a family with a child who wets nightly will pay about $1,000 a year for additional laundry, extra sheets, disposable absorbent garments such as diapers, and mattress replacement.
Despite these stressful effects, doctors emphasize that parents should react patiently and supportively.
Treatment and management optionsThere are a number of treatment and condition-management options for bedwetting. The following options apply when the bedwetting is not caused by a specifically-identifiable medical condition such as a bladder abnormality or diabetes.
When treatment is recommendedDoctors consider medical evaluation/intervention when the physician suspects a bladder abnormality, lab tests show an infection or other medical condition like diabetes, or the bedwetting is harming the child’s self-esteem or relationships with family/friends. Only a small percentage of bedwetting is caused by the first two items (see below). Most treatment is covered under the third, with physicians being concerned about the child's emotional welfare.
Parents become concerned much earlier than doctors. A study in 1980 asked parents and physicians the age that children should stay dry at night. The average parent response was 2.75 years old, while the average physician response was 5.13 years old.
It is important to note that punishment is not effective and can interfere with treatment.
Treatment options with high success rates
- Waiting Almost all children will outgrow bedwetting. For this reason, urologists and pediatricians frequently recommend delaying treatment until the child is at least six or seven years old. Physicians may begin treatment earlier if they perceive the condition is damaging the child’s self-esteem and/or relationships with family/friends.
- Nocturnal enuresis in the adolescent: a neglected problem
- The burden of nocturnal enuresis.
- Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Enuresis
- Primary Nocturnal Enuresis: Patient Attitudes and Parental Perceptions
- Empirically Supported Treatments in Pediatric Psychology: Nocturnal Enuresis
- Evidence based management of nocturnal enuresis article at NIH Web site
- Childhood nocturnal enuresis: developing a conceptual framework.
bedwetting in Catalan: Enuresi
bedwetting in German: Enuresis
bedwetting in Spanish: Enuresis nocturna
bedwetting in French: Énurésie nocturne
bedwetting in Dutch: Enurese
bedwetting in Japanese: 夜尿症
bedwetting in Norwegian: Sengevæting
bedwetting in Serbian: Енуреза
bedwetting in Ukrainian: Анурез